Early Life

Marie Curie was a Polish-born French physicist. She won the Nobel Prize in Physics and another in Chemistry. She was the first woman ever to win a Nobel Prize in any field. Curie was famous for her work in the field of radioactivity. Marie Curie's birth name was Maria Sklodowska. She was born on November 7, 1867, in Warsaw, Poland to Bronislawa and Wladyslaw Sklodowski. Both her parents were teachers. Because of her father, Marie developed an interest in mathematics and physics. She was a bright student and had learned to read and write at a very early age. For her education, she went to J. Sikorska and graduated in 1883 with a gold medal.

Marie decided to continue her studies. But in the 1800s, it was uncommon for young women in Poland to attend a university. So, she attended the underground educational establishment known as 'Flying University. Marie paid for her sister's college tuition, while putting her own dreams on hold. In her free time, she educated herself by reading books. She used to do practical training at the chemical laboratory,
In 1891, she finally attended the Sorbonne University. During this time, she came to be identified as Marie. In 1893, she received her master's degree in physics. And the next year, in mathematics. She soon began her scientific career and studied the different types of steel and their magnetic qualities.
Later, she returned to Paris and pursued her PhD degree. Marie then met scientists Wilhelm Roentgen and Henri Becquerel with whom she worked for many years. She was interested in were discovered by these scientists. the rays that Roentgen had found X-rays and Becquerel had discovered uranium salts. Marie began to conduct experiments and work a little further on these discoveries.

She used two uranium minerals called pitchblende and torbernite. Around 1898, Ma-rie started to work with Pierre Curie. They researched to discover additional substances that emitted radiation. But one day, Marie saw something unusual in the pitchblende material. She had assumed there would be few rays emitted from the uranium in the pitchblende. Instead, Marie noticed a lot of rays. She realized that there was a new, undiscovered element within pitchblende.
Marie was amazed at this discovery. She spent endless hours in the science lab with Pierre Curie to investigate pitchblende and the new element. They ultimately concluded that there were two new elements in pitchblende. These were two new additions to the periodic table. In 1898, a new element, which was also radioactive, was discovered. Marie named it 'polonium' , after her homeland, Poland. The same year, another element was named 'radium' as it emitted strong rays. The term 'radioactivity' was coined by Marie Curie, which described elements that emitted strong rays.

Later, the two scientists were able to retrieve polonium and radium in their pure forms from the mineral pitchblende. In 1902, they finally separated radium salt. For the next few years, Marie published many scientific papers about her work on radioactivity.
In 1903, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Marie and Pierre Curie, as well as to Becquerel for their work in radiation. Marie was at the height of her career. She received a doctorate from the University of Paris. And in 1911, Marie was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the two elements. She became the first person to have two Nobel Prizes.
Marie also played a significant part during World War I. Marie discovered that X-rays could help doctors determine what was wrong with a wounded soldier. She even came up with the concept of X-ray machines and trained people to run them. She installed many mobile radiological vehicles and units on the field. After the war, she wrote a book named Radiology in War.
Marie married Pierre Curie on July 26, 1895. The couple had two daughters. They worked on major experiments that changed the world of science together. Marie died on July 4, 1934, after she suffered from aplastic anaemia due to continued exposure to radiation.
Today, lots of safety measures are followed by scientists to avoid getting overexposed to the rays. As a tribute to Curie, many buildings, universities, roads and museums were named after her.

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